Anthocyanins: Antioxidant Properties, Sources and Health Benefits
Anthocyanins are compounds associated with multiple interesting effects and potential applications. This group of natural compounds can be found in many foods (ranging from red to blue depending on the matrix) such as berries, eggplant, plums, black beans and red grapes. Moreover, the knowledge accumulated so far support the key role of anthocyanins in food and pharmaceutical industry, research and in the life of consumers. The versatility of effects attributed to anthocyanins is disclosed in this book by covering several aspects ranging from its chemical and physical characteristics, separation and identification, techniques to preserve isolated compounds and reaching the healthy benefits and its use in sports.
In Chapter 1, the fundaments and main aspects related to anthocyanins are disclosed. The scientific evidence indicates positive effects were related to anticancer, antioxidant, antidiabetic and inflammatory effects, for instance. In addition, anthocyanins are excellent food additives by improving the color of food in the range between red and blue. Moreover, the applications are also related to strategies to extract and improve the stability of isolated compounds. A successful isolation is necessary to obtain anthocyanins for pharmaceutical and food applications. Chapter 2 aimed to explore the concepts and advances made to improve the recovery of anthocyanins from several types of sources. It also explored the characteristics of both conventional and novel technologies.
The isolation of anthocyanins also requires an adequate approach to identify and quantify each compound within this class. Chapter 3 is dedicated to discuss the approaches to identify and quantify anthocyanins, particularly for mass spectroscopic, nuclear magnetic resonance and high performance liquid chromatography. In addition, the aspects related to method validation are also explored. Once the extraction and adequate quantification of isolated anthocyanins occurs, it is of great value to prevent their degradation. The concepts and use of encapsulation technique are discussed in Chapter 4. Particular attention is given to the methods and the composition of encapsulating material to improve stability.
Prior to considering the biological effect and health benefits associated with the consumption of anthocyanins, the consumption and crucial events during the digestion and absorption must be considered in order to clarify and support strategies in food and pharmaceutical applications. The concepts, biological events (with emphasis on digestion) and the role of gut microbiota on the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of anthocyanins are presented in Chapter 5. Following the absorption of anthocyanins several biological effects related to health benefits were reported in scientific literature. The first and preserve knowledge is related to the traditional consumption in order to treat diseases in folk medicine. This perspective and the scientific evidence raised so far are compiled in Chapter 6. In the chapter, the different plants sources to treat diseases are described.
In Chapter 7, the relation between anthocyanins and antioxidant activity is discussed. The chapter contains the fundaments and scientific data regarding oxidative stress, lipid oxidation and evaluation of antioxidant activity (in both in vivo and in vitro methods). Moreover, the data from purified compounds and natural extracts are also presented and discussed. Another relevant benefit associated with anthocyanins is their impact on cardiovascular diseases. Chapter 8 presents the main factors associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases and discussed the role of anthocyanins to prevent the progression of this disease. Particular attention is given to the dietary sources of anthocyanins.
Reducing the burden of cancer is another pertinent effect related to anthocyanins. In order to disclose the impact of anthocyanins against the development of cancer, Chapter 9 compiles fundamental concepts and scientific data supporting their role against this disease. Particular attention is given to pharmacokinetic of anthocyanins. Additionally, the development of food products for cancer survivors was also included in this chapter.
Diabetes is a major disease that imposes limitation in the life of their carriers. Anthocyanins are important dietary components that can induce meaningful effects, at in vitro and in vivo level, to reduce the impact of diabetes in health. This perspective and the scientific data supporting it are discussed in Chapter 10. The inflammatory process is a major response mechanism in the human body. Once this process is dysregulated, a major impairing in health can occur. In Chapter 11, the mechanism by which anthocyanins act as anti-inflammatory compounds on affect key molecules and pathways are described.
Neurodegenerative diseases, particularly during aging, are a major concern due to severe limitations related to memory and motion. Chapter 12 is dedicated to disclose the role and mechanisms related to neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, this chapter also presents the concepts and scientific data regarding the brain bioavailability of anthocyanins. The benefits associated with anthocyanins are not limited to reduce the risk associated with diseases, these compounds are also relevant dietary supplements for athletes. The role on the reduction of oxidative stress and in the performance of athletes and physically active people is discussed in Chapter 13.
Chapter 1. Anthocyanins: Health Benefits and Potential Use as Functional Ingredient: A Review
(Gema Nieto, Department of Food Technology, Food Science and Nutrition, Biomedical Research Institute of Murcia, University of Murcia, Espinardo, Murcia, Spain)
Chapter 2. Extractions of Anthocyanins: Conventional and Novel Technologies
(M. P. Serrano, T. Landete-Castillejos, A. García, L. Chonco and J. M. Lorenzo, Animal Science Techniques Applied to Wildlife Management Research Group, Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Albacete, Spain, and others)
Chapter 3. Identification, Quantification, and Method Validation of Anthocyanins
(A. G. Pereira, M. Fraga, P. G. Oliveira, C. Jimenez-Lopez, C. Lourenço-Lopes, Lillian Barros, Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira, M. A. Prieto and J. Simal-Gandara, Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry, University of Vigo, Ourense, Spain, and others)
Chapter 4. Preservation of Anthocyanin-Rich Extracts: Encapsulation and Related Technologies
(Nicoleta Stănciuc, Iuliana Aprodu and Gabriela Râpeanu, Faculty of Food Science and Engineering, Dunarea de Jos University of Galați, Galați, Romania)
Chapter 5. Consumption, Bioacessibility, Bioavailability of Anthocyanins and Their Interactions with Gut Microbiota
(Gizem Catalkaya, Fatma Duygu Ceylan, Gulay Ozkan, Burcu Guldiken and Esra Capanoglu, Faculty of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, Department of Food Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul, Turkey)
Chapter 6. Anthocyanins in Folk Medicine: Local Traditions, Sources, Compounds and Related Aspects
(Clemencia Chaves-Lopez, Yeimmy Peralta-Ruiz, Junior Bernardo Molina Hernandez, Johannes Delgado Ospina, Carlos David Grande Tovar and Antonello Paparella, Faculty of Bioscience and Technology for Food, Agriculture and Environment, University of Teramo, Teramo, Italy, and others)
Chapter 7. In Vitro and in Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Antocyanins
(Maria López-Pedrouso, Danijela Bursać Kovačević, Diana Oliveira, Predrag Putnik, Andres Moure, José M. Lorenzo, Herminia Domínguez and Daniel Franco, Department of Zoology, Genetics and Physical Anthropology, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Galicia, Spain, and others)
Chapter 8. Anthocyanins and Cardiovascular Diseases
(R. Lucas-González, J. Fernández-López, and, Agrofood Technology Department, Miguel Hernandez University, Orihuela, Alicante, Spain)
Chapter 9. Anthocyanins, Cancer and Cancer-Survivors Foods
(J. A. Pérez-Álvarez, M. Viuda-Martos and J. Fernández López, IPOA Research Group, Agrofood Technology Department, Orihuela Polytechnic School, Orihuela, Alicante, Spain, and others)
Chapter 10. Anthocyanins in Diabetes
(Eva M. Santos, Israel S. Ibarra, Mirandeli Bautista Ávila, Claudia Velázquez González and Irais Sánchez-Ortega, Área Académica de Química, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico, and others)
Chapter 11. Grape Anthocyanins in Inflammation
(Veronica Sanda Chedea, Raluca Maria Pop and Elena Andreea Pop, Research Station for Viticulture and Enology, Blaj, Romania, and others)
Chapter 12. The Role of Anthocyanins in Neurological Disorders Associated with Aging
(Patricia Gullón, Beatriz Gullón, Gemma Eibes, Silvia Santos Pedrosa, Diana Oliveira and José Manuel Lorenzo, Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Viñas, Ourense, Spain, and others)
Chapter 13. Sports, Oxidative Stress and Performance
(Paulo E. S. Munekata, Rubén Domínguez, Mirian Pateiro, Francisco J. Barba and José M. Lorenzo, Meat Technological Center of Galicia, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibrán das Viñas, Ourense, Spain, and others)
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