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CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics

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ISBN: 9781032425207
Anul publicarii: 2023
Ediția: 100
Pagini: 1604


High Quality Science requires High Quality Data! Today, more than ever, the CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics is critical in ensuring that researchers, educators, and students have the highest quality data for chemical compounds and physical particles. Available both in print and online, the Handbook covers 390 chemistry, physics, and related subjects organized in easy-to-find, well-organized tables. Every year, new reported data and new scientific areas are added, making the Handbook  the largest comprehensive physical science data source available anywhere.

The 104th Edition of the Handbook has been completely reorganized to meet the needs of today’s scientists. The first section has property data on the elements, organic and inorganic compounds, water, bio-medical compounds, and polymers. Other sections focus on applications of chemical and physical data, data of importance in laboratory work, and information of units and nomenclature. The purpose of the reorganization is to make sure users can easily find all data on related subjects.


Handbook features include:

  • All data reviewed and evaluated by subject matter experts
  • Standardized chemical names, structures, property names, and property units
  • Important information on subjects such as chemical and laboratory safety, and nomenclature
  • Chemical and physical data critical for fields such as environmental science, bio-medical chemistry, organic and inorganic chemistry, materials innovation, geo- and astrophysics, and solid-state science
  • Digital tools in our Online Edition to analyze, graph, process, and exploit our data content


The Editor and Editorial Board


New Data and Updates in the 104th Edition

On the Evaluation of Chemistry and Physics Data

Current Contributors

Part 1 Data on Chemical Substances

Section 1: Elements and Their Isotopes


The Elements

Standard Atomic Weights

Atomic Masses and Isotopic Abundances

Abundance of Elements in the Earth's Crust and in the Sea

Melting, Boiling, Triple, and Critical Points and Densities of the Elements

Heat Capacity of the Elements at 25 °C

Table of the Isotopes

Phase Transitions in the Solid Elements at Atmospheric Pressure

Crystal Structures and Lattice Parameters of Allotropes of the Elements

Density of Molten Elements as a Function of Temperature

Physical Properties of the Rare-Earth Metals

Thermal and Physical Properties of Pure Elemental Metals

Electrical Resistivity of Pure Elemental Metals

Electron Work Function of the Elements

Magnetic Susceptibility of the Elements

Optical Properties of Selected Elements

Index of Refraction of Liquid Elements

Vapor Pressure of the Metallic Elements - Equations

Vapor Pressure of the Metallic Elements - Data

Section 2: Atomic Structure and Spectroscopy Data


Electron Configuration and Ionization Energy of Neutral Atoms in the Ground State

Ionization Energies of Atoms and Atomic Ions

Electron Affinities of the Atomic Elements

Persistent Lines of the Neutral Atomic Elements 

Atomic Transition Probabilities

Atomic Radii of the Elements

Polarizabilities of the Atomic Elements

Section 3: Properties of Organic Compounds


Physical Constants of Organic Compounds

CAS Registry Number Index of Organic Compounds

Diamagnetic Susceptibility of Selected Organic Compounds

Critical Constants of Organic Compounds

Dissociation Constants of Organic Acids and Bases

Miscibility of Organic Solvents

Dependence of Boiling Point of Organic Liquids on Pressure

Bond Lengths in Crystalline Organic Compounds

Bond Lengths in Organometallic Compounds

Section 4: Properties of Inorganic Compounds


Physical Constants of Inorganic Compounds

CAS Registry Number Index of Inorganic Compounds

Critical Constants of Inorganic Compounds

Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Inorganic Solids

Density of Molten Inorganic Salts as a Function of Temperature

Dissociation Constants of Inorganic Acids and Bases

Index of Refraction of Inorganic Liquids

Index of Refraction of Inorganic Crystals

Magnetic Susceptibility of Selected Inorganic Compounds

Optical Properties of Selected Inorganic Solids and Teflon

Aqueous Solubility of Inorganic Compounds as a Function of Temperature

Solubility Product Constants of Inorganic Salts

Solubility Chart for Inorganic Salts

Solubility of Common Inorganic Salts as a Function of Temperature

Properties of Gas Clathrate Hydrates

Physical and Optical Properties of Minerals

Crystallographic Data on Minerals

Section 5: Properties of Water


Thermophysical Properties of Water and Steam

Fixed-Point Thermophysical Properties of H2O and D2O

Properties of Saturated Liquid D2O

Vapor Pressure and Other Saturation Properties of Water

Standard Density of Water as a Function of Temperature

Ionization Constant of Water as a Function of Temperature and Pressure

Ionization Constant of Normal and Heavy Water at Saturated Vapor Pressure

Electrical Conductivity of Water

Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Water at Various Frequencies

Properties of Ice and Supercooled Water

Vapor Pressure of Ice

Melting Point of Ice as a Function of Pressure

Index of Refraction of Water

Section 6: Properties of Polymers


Abbreviations Used in Polymer Science and Technology

Physical Properties of Selected Polymers

Solvents for Common Polymers

Glass Transition Temperatures for Selected Polymers

Dielectric Constant of Selected Polymers

Pressure-Volume-Temperature Relationships for Polymer Melts

Vapor Pressures (Solvent Activities) for Binary Polymer Solutions

Solubility Parameters of Selected Polymers

Section 7: Properties of Bio-Medical Compounds and Substances


Properties of Amino Acids

Structures of Common Amino Acids

Properties of Purine and Pyrimidine Bases

The Genetic Code

Properties of Fatty Acids and Their Methyl Esters

Composition and Properties of Common Oils and Fats

Carbohydrate Names and Symbols

Standard Transformed Gibbs Energies of Formation for Biochemical Reactants

Apparent Equilibrium Constants for Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions

Apparent Equilibrium Thermodynamics of Protein-Ligand Binding Reactions

Thermodynamic Quantities for the Ionization Reactions of Buffers in Water

Biological Buffers

Typical pH Values of Biological Materials and Foods

Properties and Functions of Common Drugs

Properties of Controlled Substances

Section 8: Chemical Structure, Bonding, and Molecular Spectroscopy Data


Structure of Free Molecules in the Gas Phase

Characteristic Bond Lengths in Free Molecules

Dipole Moments

Hindered Internal Rotation

Bond Dissociation Energies


Force Constants for Bond Stretching

Fundamental Vibrational Frequencies of Small Molecules

Spectroscopic Constants of Diatomic Molecules

Polarizabilities of Molecules

Ionization Energies of Gas-Phase Molecules

Electron Affinities of Molecules

Part 2 Data for the Practice of Chemistry and Physics

Section 9: Physical Chemistry Data


CODATA Key Values for Thermodynamics

Standard Thermodynamic Properties of Chemical Substances

Thermodynamic Properties as a Function of Temperature

Thermodynamic Properties of Aqueous Ions

Proton Affinities

Heat of Combustion

Heat Capacity of Selected Solids

Electrical Conductivity of Aqueous Solutions

Molar Electrical Conductivity of Aqueous HF, HCl, HBr, and HI

Molar Electrical Conductivity of Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution

Ionic Conductivity and Diffusion at Infinite Dilution

Electrochemical Series

Activity Coefficients of Acids, Bases, and Salts

Mean Activity Coefficients of Electrolytes as a Function of Concentration

Enthalpy of Dilution of Acids

Enthalpy of Solution of Electrolytes

Concentrative Properties of Aqueous Solutions

Ebullioscopic Constants for Calculation of Boiling Point Elevation

Cryoscopic Constants for Calculation of Freezing Point Depression

Freezing Point Lowering by Electrolytes in Aqueous Solution

Azeotropic Data for Binary Mixtures

Section 10: Environmental Chemistry Data


Chemical Reaction Rate Constants for Atmospheric Studies

Properties of Refrigerants

Global Warming Potential of Greenhouse Gases

Atmospheric Concentration of Carbon Dioxide, 1958-2022

Aqueous Solubility and Henry's Law Constants of Organic Compounds

Properties of Seawater

Solubility of Hydrocarbons in Seawater

Octanol-Water Partition Coefficients

Global Temperature Trend, 1880-2022

Solar Irradiance at the Earth

Geographical and Seasonal Variations in Solar Radiation

Infrared Absorption by the Earth's Atmosphere

U.S. Standard Atmosphere (1976)

Section 11: Solid-State Chemistry and Physics Data


Techniques for Materials Characterization

Symmetry of Crystals

Ionic Radii in Crystals

The Madelung Constant and Crystal Lattice Energy

Elastic Constants of Single Crystals

Polarizability of Atoms and Ions in Solids

Electrical Resistivity of Binary Alloys

Electrical Resistivity of Graphite Materials

Curie Temperature of Selected Ferroelectric Crystals

Properties of Antiferroelectric Crystals

Properties of Superconductors

High-Temperature Superconductors

Organic Superconductors

Properties of Semiconductors

Selected Properties of Semiconductor Solid Solutions

Properties of Organic Semiconductors

Diffusion Data for Semiconductors

Properties of Magnetic Materials

Organic Magnets

Properties of Selected Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures

Thermoelectric Properties of Metals and Semiconductors

Thermal Conductivity of Metals and Semiconductors as a Function of Temperature

Fermi Energy and Related Properties of Metals 

Secondary Electron Emission

Electron Inelastic Mean Free Paths

Electron Stopping Powers

Attenuation Coefficients for High-Energy Electromagnetic Radiation

Thermal Conductivity of Crystalline Dielectrics

Thermal Conductivity of Ceramics and Other Insulating Materials

Section 12: Industrial Chemistry Data


Thermophysical Properties of Air

Thermophysical Properties of Fluids

Thermophysical Properties of Selected Fluids at Saturation

Vapor Pressure of Compounds and Elements

Vapor Pressure of Fluids at Temperatures below 300 K

Vapor Pressure of Saturated Salt Solutions

Enthalpy of Vaporization

Enthalpy of Fusion

Virial Coefficients of Selected Gases

Compressibility and Expansion Coefficients of Liquids

Temperature and Pressure Dependence of Liquid Density

Properties of Cryogenic Fluids

Properties of Liquid Helium

Properties of Ionic Liquids

Energy Content of Fuels

Surface Tension of Common Liquids

Surface Tension of Aqueous Mixtures

Surface Active Chemicals (Surfactants)

Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Liquids

Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Gases

Viscosity of Gases

Viscosity of Liquids

Thermal Conductivity of Gases and Refrigerants

Thermal Conductivity of Liquids

Influence of Pressure on Freezing Points

Sublimation Pressure of Solids

Solubility of Selected Gases in Water

Solubility of Carbon Dioxide in Water at Various Temperatures and Pressures

Solubility of Organic Compounds in Pressurized Hot Water

Diffusion in Gases

Diffusion of Gases in Water

Diffusion Coefficients in Liquids at Infinite Dilution

Mean Free Path and Related Properties of Gases

Index of Refraction of Air

Index of Refraction of Gases

Index of Refraction of Liquids for Calibration Purposes

Section 13: Astrophysics, Earth Sciences, and Physics Data


Astronomical Constants

Properties of the Solar System

Interstellar Molecules

Mass, Dimensions, and Other Parameters of the Earth

Density, Pressure, and Gravity as a Function of Depth within the Earth

Acceleration Due to Gravity

Ocean Pressure as a Function of Depth and Latitude

Summary Tables of Particle Properties

Blackbody Radiation

Classification of Electromagnetic Radiation

Part 3 Data for Modern Chemical Laboratories

Section 14: Analytical Chemistry Data


Abbreviations and Symbols Used in Analytical Chemistry

Basic Instrumental Techniques of Analytical Chemistry

Analytical Standardization and Calibration

Figures of Merit

Mass- and Volume-Based Concentration Units

Detection of Outliers in Measurements

Properties of Carrier Gases for Gas Chromatography

Common Symbols Used in Gas and Liquid Chromatographic Schematic Diagrams

Standard Fittings for Compressed Gas Cylinders

Stationary Phases for Porous-Layer Open Tubular Columns

Coolants for Cryotrapping

Properties of Common Cross-Linked Silicone Stationary Phases

Detectors for Gas Chromatography

Varieties of Hyphenated Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry

Gas Chromatographic Retention Indices

Pressure Drop in Open Tubular Gas Chromatographic Columns

Phase Ratios for Capillary Columns

Minimum Recommended Injector Split Ratios for Capillary Columns

Eluotropic Values of Solvents on Octadecylsilane and Octylsilane

Solid-Phase Micro-extraction Sorbents

Instability of HPLC Solvents

Fluorescence Labeling Reagents Used Pre-Column in HPLC

Detectors for Liquid Chromatography

Solvents for Ultraviolet Spectrophotometry

Correlation Table for Ultraviolet Active Functionalities

Middle-Range Infrared Absorption Correlation Charts

Common Spurious Infrared Absorption Bands

Raman Band Frequencies

Nuclear Spins, Moments, and Other Data Related to NMR Spectroscopy

Properties of Important NMR Nuclei

Proton NMR Absorption of Major Chemical Families

Proton NMR Correlation Chart for Major Organic Functional Groups

Proton NMR Shifts of Common Organic Liquids

Proton Chemical Shifts of Contaminants in Deuterated Solvents

13C-NMR Absorptions of Major Functional Groups 

13C-NMR Chemical Shifts of Common Organic Solvents

15N-NMR Chemical Shifts of Major Chemical Families

Natural Abundance of Isotopes Important in Mass Spectrometry

Common Mass Spectral Fragmentation Patterns of Organic Compound Families

Common Mass Spectral Fragments Lost

Major Reference Masses in the Spectrum of Heptacosafluorotributylamine (Perfluorotributylamine)

Mass Spectral Peaks of Common Organic Liquids

Common Spurious Signals Observed in Mass Spectrometers

Chlorine-Bromine Combination Isotope Intensities in Mass Spectral Patterns

Standards for Laboratory Weights

Reduction of Weighings in Air to Vacuo

Indicators for Acids and Bases

Preparation of Special Analytical Reagents

Organic Analytical Reagents for the Determination of Inorganic Ions

Section 15: Chemical and Laboratory Safety Data


Chemical Safety

Abbreviations Used in the Assessment and Presentation of Laboratory Hazards

Incompatible Chemicals

Explosion (Shock) Hazards

Water-Reactive Chemicals

Testing Requirements for Peroxidizable Compounds

Tests for the Presence of Peroxides

Pyrophoric Compounds - Compounds That Are Reactive with Air

Flammability of Common Solvents and Other Chemical Substances

Types and Uses of Fire Extinguishers

Materials Compatible with and Resistant to 72 Percent Perchloric Acid

Selection of Laboratory Gloves

Selection of Protective Laboratory Garments

Selection of Respirator Cartridges and Filters

Protective Clothing Levels

Selection of Hearing Protection Devices

Chemical Fume Hoods and Biological Safety Cabinets

Gas Cylinder Safety and Stamped Markings

Compressed Air Safety

Safety in the Use of Cryogens

Plug and Outlet Configurations for Common Laboratory Devices

Electrical Shock Hazards

Ladder Safety in Laboratories

Magnetic Field Safety

Nanomaterial Safety Guidelines

Threshold Limits for Airborne Contaminants

Chemical Carcinogens

Laser Hazards in the Laboratory

General Characteristics of Ionizing Radiation for Practical Application of Radiation Protection

Radiation Safety Units

Relative Dose Ranges from Ionizing Radiation

Annual Limits on Intakes of Radionuclides

Section 16: Practical Laboratory Data


Laboratory Solvents and Other Liquid Reagents

Density of Solvents as a Function of Temperature

pH Scale for Aqueous Solutions

Buffer Solutions Giving Round Values of pH at 25 °C

Constant Humidity Solutions

Standard Salt Solutions for Humidity Calibration

Low-Temperature Baths for Maintaining Constant Temperature

Metals and Alloys with Low-Melting Temperature

Standard KCl Solutions for Calibrating Electrical Conductivity Cells

Characteristics of Particles and Particle Dispersoids

International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90)

Reference Points on the ITS-90 Temperature Scale

Standard ITS-90 Thermocouple Tables

Part 4 Reference Tables and Indices

Section 17: Units, Constants, and Conversion Factors

CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2018

International System of Units (SI)

Expression of Uncertainty of Measurements

Descriptive Terms for Solubility

Units for Magnetic Properties

Conversion Factors for Energy Units

Conversion Factors for Pressure Units

Units of Measure for Vacuum Systems

Values of the Gas Constant in Different Unit Systems

Conversion Factors for Thermal Conductivity Units

Section 18: Nomenclature, Terminology, and Symbols

Nomenclature for Chemical Compounds

Representation of Chemical Structures with the IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI)

Definition of Ambient

Symbols and Terminology for Physical and Chemical Quantities

Scientific Abbreviations, Acronyms, and Symbols

Thermodynamic Functions and Relations

Section 19: Covers and Indices

Periodic Table of the Elements

Standard Atomic Weights in Atomic Order Number

Fundamental Physical Constants - Frequently Used Constants


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