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Quantitative Human Physiology

Quantitative Human Physiology
Preț: 619,50 lei
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ISBN: 9780128008836
Anul publicarii: 2018
Ediția: 2
Pagini: 1008

DESCRIERE

Quantitative Human Physiology: An Introduction, winner of a 2018 Textbook Excellence Award (Texty), is the first text to meet the needs of the undergraduate bioengineering student who is being exposed to physiology for the first time, but requires a more analytical/quantitative approach. This book explores how component behavior produces system behavior in physiological systems. Through text explanation, figures, and equations, it provides the engineering student with a basic understanding of physiological principles with an emphasis on quantitative aspects.

 
  • Winner of a 2018 Textbook Excellence Award (College) (Texty) from the Textbook and Academic Authors Association
  • Features a quantitative approach that includes physical and chemical principles
  • Provides a more integrated approach from first principles, integrating anatomy, molecular biology, biochemistry and physiology
  • Includes clinical applications relevant to the biomedical engineering student (TENS, cochlear implants, blood substitutes, etc.)
  • Integrates labs and problem sets to provide opportunities for practice and assessment throughout the course

Table of Contents

  • Preface
    • This Text Is a Physiology Text First, and Quantitative Second
    • The Text Uses Mathematics Extensively
    • Not All Things Worth Knowing Are Worth Knowing Well
    • Perfect Is the Enemy of Good: Equations Aren’t Perfect, but They’re Often Good Enough
    • Examples and Problem Sets Allow Application of the Useful Equations
    • Learning Objectives, Summaries, and Review Questions Guide Student Learning
    • Clinical Applications Pique Interest
    • How Instructors Can Use This Text
    • Ancillary Materials for Instructors
    • How students Can Use This Text
    • Ancillary Materials for Students
    • Student Feedback
  • Acknowledgments
  • Unit 1: Physical and Chemical Foundations of Physiology
    • 1. 1. The Core Principles of Physiology
      • Abstract
      • Human Physiology Is the Integrated Study of the Normal Function of the Human Body
      • The Body Consists of Causal Mechanisms That Obey the Laws of Physics and Chemistry
      • The Core Principles of Physiology
      • Cells Are the Organizational Unit of Life
      • The Concept of Homeostasis Is a Central Theme of Physiology
      • Evolution Is an Efficient Cause of the Human Body Working Over Longtime Scales
      • Living Beings Transform Energy and Matter
      • Function Follows Form
      • Positive Feedback Control Systems Have Different Signs for the Adjustment to Perturbations
      • We Are Not Alone: the Microbiota
      • Physiology Is a Quantitative Science
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 1. 2. Physical Foundations of Physiology I: Pressure-Driven Flow
      • Abstract
      • Forces Produce Flows
      • Conservation of Matter or Energy Leads to the Continuity Equation
      • Steady-State Flows Require Linear Gradients
      • Heat, Charge, Solute, and Volume Can Be Stored: Analogues of Capacitance
      • Pressure Drives Fluid Flow
      • Poiseuille’s Law Governs Steady-State Laminar Flow in Narrow Tubes
      • The Law of LaPlace Relates Pressure to Tension in Hollow Organs
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 1. 2. A1 Derivation of Poiseuille’s Law
      • Appendix 1. 2. A2 Introductory Statistics and Linear Regresssion
    • 1. 3. Physical Foundations of Physiology II: Electrical Force, Potential, Capacitance, and Current
      • Abstract
      • Coulomb’s Law Describes Electrical Forces
      • The Electric Potential Is the Work per Unit Charge
      • The Idea of Potential Is Limited to Conservative Forces
      • The Work Done by a Conservative Force Is Path Independent
      • Potential Difference Depends Only on the Initial and Final States
      • The Electric Field Is the Negative Gradient of the Potential
      • Force and Energy Are Simple Consequences of Potential
      • Gauss’s Law Is a Consequence of Coulomb’s Law
      • The Capacitance of a Parallel Plate Capacitor Depends on Its Area and Plate Separation
      • Biological Membranes Are Electrical Capacitors
      • Electric Charges Move in Response to Electric Forces
      • Movement of Ions in Response to Electrical Forces Makes a Current and a Solute Flux
      • The Relationship Between J and C Defines an Average Velocity
      • Ohm’s Law Relates Current to Potential
      • Kirchhoff’s Current Law and Kirchhoff’s Voltage Law
      • The Time Constant Characterizes the Charging of a Capacitor in a Simple RC Circuit
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • Problem Set 1. 1. Physical Foundations: Pressure and Electrical Forces and Flows
    • 1. 4. Chemical Foundations of Physiology I: Chemical Energy and Intermolecular Forces
      • Abstract
      • Atoms Contain Distributed Electrical Charges
      • Electron Orbitals Have Specific, Quantized Energies
      • Human Life Requires Relatively Few of the Chemical Elements
      • Atomic Orbitals Explain the Periodicity of Chemical Reactivities
      • Atoms Bind Together in Definite Proportions to Form Molecules
      • Compounds Have Characteristic Geometries and Surfaces
      • Single CC Bonds Can Freely Rotate
      • Double CC Bonds Prohibit Free Rotation
      • Chemical Bonds Have Bond Energies, Bond Lengths, and Bond Angles
      • Bond Energy Is Expressed as Enthalpy Changes
      • The Multiplicity of CX Bonds Produces Isomerism
      • Unequal Sharing Makes Polar Covalent Bonds
      • Ionic Bonds Result from Atoms with Highly Unequal Electronegativities
      • Water Provides an Example of a Polar Bond
      • Intermolecular Forces Arise from Electrostatic Interactions
      • Hydrogen Bonding Occurs Between Two Electronegative Centers
      • Dipole–Dipole Interactions Are Effective Only Over Short Distances
      • London Dispersion Forces Involve Induced Dipoles
      • Close Approach of Molecules Results in a Repulsive Force That Combines with the van der Waals Forces in the Lennard–Jones Potential
      • Atoms Within Molecules Wiggle and Jiggle, and Bonds Stretch and Bend
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 1. 4. A1 Dipole Moment
    • 1. 5. Chemical Foundations of Physiology II: Concentration and Kinetics
      • Abstract
      • Avogadro’s Number Counts the Particles in a Mole
      • Concentration Is the Amount Per Unit Volume
      • Scientific Prefixes Indicate Order of Magnitude
      • Dilution of Solutions Is Calculated Using Conservation of Solute
      • Calculation of Fluid Volumes by the Fick Dilution Principle
      • Chemical Reactions Have Forward and Reverse Rate Constants
      • First-Order Rate Equations Show Exponential Decay
      • Rates of Chemical Reactions Depend on the Activation Energy
      • Enzymes Speed Up Reactions by Lowering Ea
      • The Michaelis–Menten Formulation of Enzyme Kinetics
      • Physiology Is All About Surfaces
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 1. 5. A1 Transition State Theory Explains Reaction Rates in Terms of an Activation Energy
      • Appendix 1. 5. A2 Unidirectional Fluxes Over a Series of Intermediates Depend on All of the Individual Unidirectional Fluxes
      • Appendix 1. 5. A3 Simple Compartmental Analysis
    • 1. 6. Diffusion
      • Abstract
      • Fick’s First Law of Diffusion Was Proposed in Analogy to Fourier’s Law of Heat Transfer
      • Fick’s Second Law of Diffusion Follows from the Continuity Equation and Fick’s First Law
      • Fick’s Second Law Can Be Derived from the One-Dimensional Random Walk
      • The Time for One-Dimensional Diffusion Increases with the Square of Distance
      • Diffusion Coefficients in Cells Are Less than the Free Diffusion Coefficient in Water
      • External Forces Can Move Particles and Alter the Diffusive Flux
      • The Stokes–Einstein Equation Relates the Diffusion Coefficient to Molecular Size
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 1. 6. A1 Derivation of Einstein’s Frictional Coefficient from Momentum Transfer in Solution
    • 1. 7. Electrochemical Potential and Free Energy
      • Abstract
      • Diffusive and Electrical Forces Can Be Unified in the Electrochemical Potential
      • The Overall Force That Drives Flux Is the Negative Gradient of the Electrochemical Potential
      • The Electrochemical Potential Is the Gibbs Free Energy Per Mole
      • The Sign of ΔG Determines the Direction of a Reaction
      • Processes with ΔG>0 Can Proceed Only by Linking Them with Another Process with ΔG<0
      • The Large Negative Free Energy of ATP Hydrolysis Powers Many Biological Processes
      • Measurement of the Equilibrium Concentrations of ADP, ATP, and Pi Allows Us to Calculate ΔG0
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • Problem Set 1. 2. Kinetics and Diffusion
  • Unit 2: Membranes, Transport, and Metabolism
    • 2. 1. Cell Structure
      • Abstract
      • For Cells, Form Follows Function
      • Organelles Make Up the Cell Like the Organs Make Up the Body
      • The Cell Membrane Marks the Limits of the Cell
      • The Cytosol Provides a Medium for Dissolution and Transport of Materials
      • The Cytoskeleton Supports the Cell and Forms a Network for Vesicular Transport
      • Microtubules Are the Largest Cytoskeletal Filaments
      • Actin Filaments Arise from Nucleation Sites Usually in the Cell Cortex
      • Intermediate Filaments Are Diverse
      • Cytoskeletal Units Form Free-Floating Structures Based on Tensegrity
      • Myosin Interacts with Actin to Produce Force or Shortening
      • The Nucleus Is the Command Center of the Cell
      • Ribosomes Are the Site of Protein Synthesis
      • The ER Is the Site of Protein and Lipid Synthesis and Processing
      • The Golgi Apparatus Packages Secretory Materials
      • The Mitochondrion Is the Powerhouse of the Cell
      • Lysosomes and Peroxisomes Are Bags of Enzymes
      • Proteasomes Degrade Marked Proteins
      • Cells Attach to Each Other Through a Variety of Junctions
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 2. 1. A1 Some Methods for Studying Cell Structure and Function
      • Microscopic Resolution Is the Ability to Distinguish Between Two Separated Objects
      • The Electron Microscope Has Advanced Our Understanding of Cell Structure
      • Subcellular Fractionation Allows Studies of Isolated Organelle But Requires Disruption of Cell Function and Structure
      • Differential Centrifugation Produces Enriched Fractions of Subcellular Organelles
      • Density Gradient Centrifugation Enhances Purity of the Fractions
      • Analysis of Centrifugation Separation
      • Centripetal Force in a Spinning Tube Is Provided by the Solvent
      • The Magnitude of the Centripetal Force Can Be Expressed as Relative Centrifugal Force
      • The Velocity of Sedimentation Is Measured in Svedbergs or S Units
      • Density Gradient Centrifugation
      • Other Optical Methods
    • 2. 2. DNA and Protein Synthesis
      • Abstract
      • DNA Makes Up the Genome
      • DNA Consists of Two Intertwined Sequences of Nucleotides
      • RNA Is Closely Related to DNA
      • The Genetic Code Is a System Property
      • Regulation of DNA Transcription Defines the Cell Type
      • The Histone Code Provides Another Level of Regulation of Gene Transcription
      • DNA Methylation Represses Transcription
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 2. 3. Protein Structure
      • Abstract
      • Amino Acids Make Up Proteins
      • Hydrophobic Interactions Can Be Assessed from the Partition Coefficient
      • Peptide Bonds Link Amino Acids Together in Proteins
      • Protein Function Centers on Their Ability to Form Reactive Surfaces
      • There Are Four Levels of Description for Protein Structure
      • Posttranslational Modification Regulates and Refines Protein Structure and Function
      • Protein Activity Is Regulated by the Number of Molecules or by Reversible Activation/Inactivation
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 2. 4. Biological Membranes
      • Abstract
      • Biological Membranes Surround Most Intracellular Organelles
      • Biological Membranes Consist of a Lipid Bilayer Core with Embedded Proteins and Carbohydrate Coats
      • Organic Solvents Can Extract Lipids from Membranes
      • Biological Membranes Contain Mostly Phospholipids
      • Phospholipids Contain Fatty Acyl Chains, Glycerol, Phosphate, and a Hydrophilic Group
      • Plasmanyl Phospholipids and Plasmenyl Phospholipids Use Fatty Alcohols Instead of Fatty Acids
      • Sphingolipids Use Sphingosine as a Backbone and Are Particularly Rich in Brain and Nerve Tissues
      • Other Lipid Components of Membranes Include CardiolipinSphingolipids, and Cholesterol
      • Surface Tension of Water Results from Asymmetric Forces at the Interface
      • Water “Squeezes Out” Amphipathic Molecules
      • Amphipathic Molecules Spread Over a Water Surface, Reduce Surface Tension, and Produce an Apparent Surface Pressure
      • Phospholipids Form Bilayer Membranes Between Two Aqueous Compartments
      • Lipid Bilayers Can Also Form Liposomes
      • Although Lipids Form the Core, Membrane Proteins Carry Out Many of the Functions of Membranes
      • Membrane Proteins Bind to Membranes with Varying Affinity
      • Lipids Maintain Dynamic Motion Within the Bilayer
      • Lipid Rafts Are Special Areas of Lipid and Protein Composition
      • Caveolae and Clathrin-Coated Pits Are Stabilized by Integral Proteins
      • Secreted Proteins Have Special Mechanisms for Getting Inside the Endoplasmic Reticulum
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • Problem Set 2. 1. Surface Tension, Membrane Surface Tension, Membrane Structure, Microscopic Resolution, and Cell Fractionation
    • 2. 5. Passive Transport and Facilitated Diffusion
      • Abstract
      • Membranes Possess a Variety of Transport Mechanisms
      • A Microporous Membrane Is One Model of a Passive Transport Mechanism
      • Dissolution in the Lipid Bilayer Is Another Model for Passive Transport
      • Facilitated Diffusion Uses a Membrane-Bound Carrier
      • Facilitated Diffusion Saturates with Increasing Solute Concentrations
      • Facilitated Diffusion Shows Specificity
      • Facilitated Diffusion Shows Competitive Inhibition
      • Passive Transport Occurs Spontaneously Without Input of Energy
      • Ions Can be Passively Transported Across Membranes by Ionophores or by Channels
      • Ionophores Carry Ions Across Membranes or Form Channels
      • Ion Channels
      • Water Moves Passively Through Aquaporins
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 2. 6. Active Transport: Pumps and Exchangers
      • Abstract
      • The Electrochemical Potential Difference Measures the Energetics of Ion Permeation
      • Active Transport Mechanisms Link Metabolic Energy to Transport of Materials
      • Na, K-ATPase Is an Example of Primary Active Transport
      • Na, K-ATPase Forms a Phosphorylated Intermediate
      • The Na, K-ATPase Is Electrogenic
      • There Are Many Different Primary Active Transport Pumps
      • The Na–Ca Exchanger as an Example of Secondary Active Transport
      • Secondary Active Transport Mechanisms Are Symports or Antiports
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 2. 6. A1 Derivation of the Ussing Flux Ratio Equation
      • Appendix 2. 6. A2 Nomenclature of Transport Proteins
      • Carrier Classifications
      • Solute Carriers
      • ATP-Driven Ion Pumps
      • ABC Transporters
      • Aquaporins
    • 2. 7. Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure
      • Abstract
      • Osmosis Is the Flow of Water Driven by Solute Concentration Differences
      • The van’t Hoff Equation Relates Osmotic Pressure to Concentration
      • Thermodynamic Derivation of van’t Hoff’s Law
      • Osmotic Pressure Is a Property of Solutions Related to Other Colligative Properties
      • The Osmotic Coefficient φ Corrects for the Assumption of Dilute Solution and for Nonideal Behavior
      • The Rational Osmotic Coefficient Corrects for the Assumption of Ideality
      • Equivalence of Osmotic and Hydrostatic Pressures
      • The Reflection Coefficient Corrects van’t Hoff’s Equation for Permeable Solutes
      • Lp for a Microporous Membrane Depends on the Microscopic Characteristics of the Membrane
      • Case 1: The Solute Is Very Small Compared to the Pore
      • Case 2: The Solute Is Larger than the Pore: The Mechanism of Osmosis for Microporous Membranes
      • Case 3: The Reflection Coefficient Results from Partially Restricted Entry of Solutes into the Pores
      • Solutions May Be Hypertonic or Hypotonic
      • Osmosis, Osmotic Pressure, and Tonicity Are Related But Distinct Concepts
      • Cells Behave Like Osmometers
      • Cells Actively Regulate Their Volume Through RVDs and RVIs
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 2. 7. A1 Mechanism of Osmosis: Filtration Versus Diffusion Down a Concentration Gradient
    • Problem Set 2. 2. Membrane Transport
    • 2. 8. Cell Signaling
      • Abstract
      • Signaling Transduces One Event into Another
      • Cell-to-Cell Communication Can Also Use Direct Mechanical, Electrical, or Chemical Signals
      • Signals Elicit a Variety of Classes of Cellular Responses
      • Electrical Signals and Neurotransmitters Are Fastest; Endocrine Signals Are Slowest
      • Voltage-Gated Ion Channels Convey Electrical Signals
      • Voltage-Gated Ca2+ Channels Transduce an Electrical Signal to an Intracellular Ca2+ Signal
      • Ligand-Gated Ion Channels Open Upon Binding with Chemical Signals
      • Heterotrimeric G-Protein-Coupled Receptors (GPCRs) Are Versatile
      • There Are Four Classes of G-Proteins: Gαs, Gαi/Gαo, Gαq, and Gα12/Gα13
      • The Response of a Cell to a Chemical Signal Depends on the Receptor and Its Effectors
      • Chemical Signals Can Bind to and Directly Activate Membrane-Bound Enzymes
      • Many Signals Alter Gene Expression
      • Nuclear Receptors Alter Gene Transcription
      • Nuclear Receptors Recruit Histone Acetylase to Unwrap the DNA from the Histones
      • Nuclear Receptors Recruit Transcription Factors
      • Other Signaling Pathways Also Regulate Gene Expression
      • Summary of Signaling Mechanisms
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 2. 9. ATP Production I: Glycolysis
      • Abstract
      • Take a Global View of Metabolism
      • Energy Production Occurs in Three Stages: Breakdown into Units, Formation of Acetyl CoA, and Complete Oxidation of Acetyl CoA
      • ATP Is the Energy Currency of the Cell
      • Fuel Reserves Are Stored in the Body Primarily in Fat Depots and Glycogen
      • Glucose Is a Readily Available Source of Energy
      • Glucose Release by the Liver Is Controlled by Hormones Through a Second Messenger System
      • The Liver Exports Glucose into the Blood Because It Can Dephosphorylate Glucose-6-P
      • A Specific Glucose Carrier Takes Glucose up into Cells
      • Glycolysis Is a Series of Biochemical Transformations Leading from Glucose to Pyruvate
      • Glycolysis Generates ATP Quickly in the Absence of Oxygen
      • Glycolysis Requires NAD+
      • Gluconeogenesis Requires Reversal of Glycolysis
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 2. 10. ATP Production II: The TCA Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation
      • Abstract
      • Oxidation of Pyruvate Occurs in the Mitochondria via the TCA Cycle
      • Pyruvate Enters the Mitochondria and Is Converted to Acetyl CoA
      • Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Releases CO2 and Makes NADH
      • The Affinity of a Chemical for Electrons Is Measured by Its Standard Reduction Potential
      • The Reduction Potential Depends on the Concentration of Oxidized and Reduced Forms, and the Temperature
      • The TCA Cycle Is a Catalytic Cycle
      • The ETC Links Chemical Energy to H+ Pumping Out of the Mitochondria
      • Oxygen Accepts Electrons at the End of the ETC
      • Proton Pumping and Electron Transport Are Tightly Coupled
      • The ATP Synthase Couples Inward H+ Flux to ATP Synthesis
      • The Proton Electrochemical Gradient Provides the Energy for ATP Synthesis
      • NADH Forms About 2. 5 ATP Molecules; FADH2 Forms About 1. 5 ATP Molecules
      • ATP Can Be Produced From Cytosolic NADH
      • Most of the ATP Produced During Complete Glucose Oxidation Comes from Oxidative Phosphorylation
      • Mitochondria Have Specific Transport Mechanisms
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 2. 11. ATP Production III: Fatty Acid Oxidation and Amino Acid Oxidation
      • Abstract
      • Fats and Proteins Contribute 50% of the Energy Content of Many Diets
      • Depot Fat Is Stored as Triglycerides and Broken Down to Glycerol and Fatty Acids for Energy
      • Glycerol Is Converted to an Intermediate of Glycolysis
      • Fatty Acids Are Metabolized in the Mitochondria and Peroxisomes
      • Beta Oxidation Cleaves Two Carbon Pieces off Fatty Acids
      • The Liver Packages Substrates for Energy Production by Other Tissues
      • Amino Acids Can Be Used to Generate ATP
      • Amino Acids Are Deaminated to Enable Oxidation
      • Urea Is Produced During Deamination and Is Eliminated as a Waste Product
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
  • Unit 3: Physiology of Excitable Cells
    • 3. 1. The Origin of the Resting Membrane Potential
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • The Equilibrium Potential Arises from the Balance Between Electrical Force and Diffusion
      • The Equilibrium Potential for K+ Is Negative
      • Integration of the Nernst–Planck Electrodiffusion Equation Gives the Goldman–Hodgkin–Katz Equation
      • Slope Conductance and Chord Conductance Relate Ion Flows to the Net Driving Force
      • The Chord Conductance Equation Relates Membrane Potential to All Ion Flows
      • The Current Convention Is that an Outward Current Is Positive
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 3. 1. A1 Derivation of the GHK Equation
    • 3. 2. The Action Potential
      • Abstract
      • Cells Use Action Potentials as Fast Signals
      • The Motor Neuron Has Dendrites, a Cell Body, and an Axon
      • Passing a Current Across the Membrane Changes the Membrane Potential
      • An Outward Current Hyperpolarizes the Membrane Potential
      • The Result of Depolarizing Stimulus of Adequate Size Is a New Phenomenon—the Action Potential
      • The Action Potential Is All or None
      • The Latency Decreases with Increasing Stimulus Strength
      • Threshold Is the Membrane Potential at Which an Action Potential Is Elicited 50% of the Time
      • The Nerve Cannot Produce a Second Excitation During the Absolute Refractory Period
      • The Action Potential Reverses to Positive Values, Called the Overshoot
      • The Strength–Duration Relationship is Hyperbolic
      • Voltage-Dependent Changes in Ion Conductance Cause the Action Potential
      • The Action Potential Is Accompanied by Na+ Influx
      • The Chord Conductance Equation Predicts that Changes in Conductance Will Change the Membrane Potential
      • gNa Increases Transiently During the Action Potential; gK Increases Later and Stays Elevated Longer
      • Conductance and Equilibrium Potentials for Na+ and K+ Account for All of the Features of the Action Potential
      • gNa Is a Function of a Na+-Selective Channel
      • The Inactivation Gates Must Be Reset Before Another Action Potential Can Be Fired
      • Conductance Depends on the Number and State of the Channels
      • Patch Clamp Experiments Measure Unitary Conductances
      • The Current–Voltage Relationship for the Whole Cell Determines the Threshold for Excitation
      • Threshold Depolarization Requires a Threshold Charge Movement, Which Explains the Strength–Duration Relationship
      • The Amount of Charge Necessary to Reach Threshold Explains the Strength–Duration Relationship
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 3. 2. A1 The Hodgkin–Huxley Model of the Action Potential
      • The HH Model Divides the Total Current into Separate Na+, K+, and Leak Currents
      • The HH Model of the K+ Conductance Incorporates Four Independent “Particles”
      • The HH Model of Na+ Conductances Uses Activating and Inactivating Particles
      • Calculation of gNa(t) and gK(t) for a Voltage Clamp Experiment
      • Results of the Calculations
    • 3. 3. Propagation of the Action Potential
      • Abstract
      • The Action Potential Moves Along the Axon
      • The Velocity of Nerve Conduction Varies Directly with the Axon Diameter
      • The Action Potential Is Propagated by Current Moving Axially Down the Axon
      • The Time Course and Distance of Electrotonic Spread Depend on the Cable Properties of the Nerve
      • Capacitance Depends on the Area, Thickness, and Dielectric Constant
      • Charge Buildup or Depletion from a Capacitor Constitutes a Capacitative Current
      • The Transmembrane Resistance Depends on the Area of the Membrane
      • The Axoplasmic Resistance Depends on the Distance, Area, and Specific Resistance
      • The Extracellular Resistance Also Depends on the Distance, Area, and Specific Resistance
      • Cable Properties Define a Space Constant and a Time Constant
      • The Cable Properties Explain the Velocity of Action Potential Conduction
      • Saltatory Conduction Refers to the “Jumping” of the Current from Node to Node
      • The Action Potential Is Spread out Over More than One Node
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 3. 3. A1 Capacitance of a Coaxial Capacitor
      • The Capacitance of a Coaxial Cable
    • Problem Set 3. 1. Membrane Potential, Action Potential, and Nerve Conduction
    • 3. 4. Skeletal Muscle Mechanics
      • Abstract
      • Muscles Either Shorten or Produce Force
      • Muscles Perform Diverse Functions
      • Muscles Are Classified According to Fine Structure, Neural Control, and Anatomical Arrangement
      • Isometric Force Is Measured While Keeping Muscle Length Constant
      • Muscle Force Depends on the Number of Motor Units That Are Activated
      • The Size Principle States That Motor Units Are Recruited in the Order of Their Size
      • Muscle Force Can Be Graded by the Frequency of Motor Neuron Firing
      • Muscle Force Depends on the Length of the Muscle
      • Recruitment Provides the Greatest Gradation of Muscle Force
      • Muscle Fibers Differ in Contractile, Metabolic and Proteomic Characteristics
      • Motor Units Contain a Single Type of Muscle Fiber
      • The Innervation Ratio of Motor Units Produces a Proportional Control of Muscle Force
      • Muscle Force Varies Inversely with Muscle Velocity
      • Muscle Power Varies with the Load and Muscle Type
      • Eccentric Contractions Lengthen the Muscle and Produce More Force
      • Concentric, Isometric, and Eccentric Contractions Serve Different Functions
      • Muscle Architecture Influences Force and Velocity of the Whole Muscle
      • Muscles Decrease Force Upon Repeated Stimulation; This Is Fatigue
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 3. 5. Contractile Mechanisms in Skeletal Muscle
      • Abstract
      • Introduction
      • Muscle Fibers Have a Highly Organized Structure
      • The Sliding Filament Hypothesis Explains the Length–Tension Curve
      • Force Is Produced by an Interaction Between Thick Filament Proteins and Thin Filament Proteins
      • The Thin Filament Consists Primarily of Actin
      • α-Actinin at the Z-disk Joins Actin Filaments of Adjacent Sarcomeres
      • Myomesin Joins Thick Filaments at the M-Line or M-Band
      • Overall Structure of the Sarcomere Is Complicated
      • Cross-Bridges from the Thick Filament Split ATP and Generate Force
      • Myosin Heads Are Independent But May Cooperate Through Strain on the Cross-Bridge
      • Cross-Bridge Cycling Rate Explains the Fiber-Type Dependence of the Force–Velocity Curve
      • Force Is Transmitted Outside the Cell Through the Cytoskeleton and Special Transmembrane Proteins
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 3. 6. The Neuromuscular Junction and Excitation–Contraction Coupling
      • Abstract
      • Motor Neurons Are the Sole Physiological Activators of Skeletal Muscles
      • The Motor Neuron Receives Thousands of Inputs from Other Cells
      • Postsynaptic Potentials Can Be Excitatory or Inhibitory
      • Postsynaptic Potentials Are Graded, Spread Electrotonically, and Decay with Time
      • Action Potentials Originate at the Initial Segment or Axon Hillock
      • Motor Neurons Integrate Multiple Synaptic Inputs to Initiate Action Potentials
      • The Action Potential Travels Down the Axon Toward the Neuromuscular Junction
      • The Neuromuscular Junction Consists of Multiple Enlargements Connected by Axon Segments
      • Neurotransmission at the Neuromuscular Junction Is Unidirectional
      • Motor Neurons Release Acetylcholine to Excite Muscles
      • Ca2+ Efflux Mechanisms in the Presynaptic Cell Shut Off the Ca2+ Signal
      • Acetylcholine Is Degraded and Then Recycled
      • The Action Potential on the Muscle Membrane Propagates Both Ways on the Muscle
      • The Muscle Fiber Converts the Action Potential into an Intracellular Ca2+ Signal
      • The Ca2+ during E–C Coupling Originates from the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum
      • Ca2+ Release from the SR and Reuptake by the SR Requires Several Proteins
      • Reuptake of Ca2+ by the SR Ends Contraction and Initiates Relaxation
      • Cross-Bridge Cycling Is Controlled by Myoplasmic [Ca2+]
      • Sequential SR Release and Summation of Myoplasmic [Ca2+] Explains Summation and Tetany
      • The Elastic Properties of the Muscle Are Responsible for the Waveform of the Twitch
      • Repetitive Stimulation Causes Repetitive Ca2+ Release from the SR and Wave Summation
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 3. 6. A1 Molecular Machinery of the Neuromuscular Junction
      • Appendix 3. 6. A2 Molecular Machinery of the Calcium Release Unit
    • 3. 7. Muscle Energetics, Fatigue, and Training
      • Abstract
      • Muscular Activity Relies on the Free Energy of ATP Hydrolysis
      • Muscular Activity Consumes ATP at High Rates
      • The Aggregate Rate and Amount of ATP Consumption Varies with the Intensity and Duration of Exercise
      • In Repetitive Exercise, Intensity Increases Frequency and Reduces Rest Time
      • Metabolic Pathways Regenerate ATP on Different Timescales and with Different Capacities
      • The Metabolic Pathways Used by Muscle Varies with Intensity and Duration of Exercise
      • At High Intensity of Exercise, Glucose and Glycogen Are the Preferred Fuel for Muscle
      • Lactic Acid Produced by Anaerobic Metabolism Allows High Glycolytic Flux
      • Muscle Fibers Differ in Their Metabolic Properties
      • Blood Lactate Levels Rise Progressively with Increases in Exercise Intensity
      • Mitochondria Import Lactic Acid, Then Metabolize it; This Forms a Carrier System for NADH Oxidation
      • Lactate Shuttles to the Mitochondria, Oxidative Fibers, or Liver
      • The “Anaerobic Threshold” Results from a Mismatch of Lactic Acid Production and Oxidation
      • Exercise Increases Glucose Transporters in the Muscle Sarcolemma
      • Fatigue Is a Transient Loss of Work Capacity Resulting from Preceding Work
      • Initial Training Gains Are Neural
      • Muscle Strength Depends on Muscle Size
      • Endurance Training Uses Repetitive Movements to Tune Muscle Metabolism
      • Endocrine and Autocrine Signals Regulate Muscle Size (=Strength)
      • Human Ability to Switch Muscle Fiber Types Is Limited
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • Problem Set 3. 2. Neuromuscular Transmission, Muscle Force, and Energetics
    • 3. 8. Smooth Muscle
      • Abstract
      • Smooth Muscles Show No Cross-Striations
      • Smooth Muscle Develops Tension More Slowly But Can Maintain Tension for a Long Time
      • Smooth Muscle Can Contract Tonically or Phasically
      • Smooth Muscles Exhibit a Variety of Electrical Activities that May or May Not Be Coupled to Force Development
      • Contractile Filaments in Smooth Muscle Cells Form a Lattice That Attaches to the Cell Membrane
      • Adjacent Smooth Muscle Cells Are Mechanically Coupled and May Be Electrically Coupled
      • Smooth Muscle Is Controlled by Intrinsic Activity, Nerves, and Hormones
      • Nerves Release Neurotransmitters Diffusely onto Smooth Muscle
      • Contraction in Smooth Muscle Cells Is Initiated by Increasing Intracellular [Ca2+]
      • Smooth Muscle Cytosolic [Ca2+] Is Heterogeneous and Controlled by Multiple Mechanisms
      • Smooth Muscle [Ca2+] Can Be Regulated by Chemical Signals
      • Force in Smooth Muscle Arises from Ca2+ Activation of Actin–Myosin Interaction
      • Myosin Light Chain Phosphorylation Regulates Smooth Muscle Force
      • Myosin Light Chain Phosphatase Dephosphorylates the RLC
      • Ca2+ Sensitization Produces Force at Lower [Ca2+] Levels
      • Nitric Oxide Induces Smooth Muscle Relaxation by Stimulating Guanylate Cyclase
      • Adrenergic Stimulation Relaxes Smooth Muscles by Reducing Cytosolic [Ca2+]
      • Synopsis of Mechanisms Promoting Contraction or Relaxation of Smooth Muscle
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
  • Unit 4: The Nervous System
    • 4. 1. Organization of the Nervous System
      • Abstract
      • The Neuroendocrine System Controls Physiological Systems
      • A Central Tenet of Physiological Psychology Is That Neural Processes Completely Explain All Behavior
      • The New Mind–Body Problem Is How Consciousness Arises from a Material Brain
      • External Behavioral Responses Require Sensors, Internal Processes, and Motor Response
      • The Nervous System Is Divided into the Central and Peripheral Nervous System
      • The Brain Has Readily Identifiable Surface Features
      • CSF Fills the Ventricles and Cushions the Brain
      • The Blood-Brain Barrier Protects the Brain
      • Cross Sections of the Brain and Staining Reveal Internal Structures
      • Gray Matter Is Organized into Layers
      • Overall Function of the Nervous System Derives from its Component Cells
      • Overview of the Functions of Some Major Areas of the CNS
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 4. 2. Cells, Synapses, and Neurotransmitters
      • Abstract
      • Nervous System Behavior Derives from Cell Behavior
      • Nervous Tissue Is Composed of Neurons and Supporting Cells
      • Glial Cells Protect and Serve
      • Neurons Differ in Shapes and Size
      • Input Information Typically Converges on the Cell and Output Information Diverges
      • Chemical Synapses Are Overwhelmingly More Common
      • Ca2+ Signals Initiate Chemical Neurotransmission
      • Vesicle Fusion Uses the Same Molecular Machinery That Regulates Other Vesicle Traffic
      • Ca2+ Efflux Mechanisms in the Pre-Synaptic Cell Shut Off the Ca2+ Signal
      • Removal or Destruction of the Neurotransmitter Shuts Off the Neurotransmitter Signal
      • The Pre-Synaptic Terminal Recycles Neurotransmitter Vesicles
      • Ionotropic Receptors Are Ligand-Gated Channels; Metabotropic Receptors Are GPCR
      • Acetylcholine Binds to Nicotinic Receptors or Muscarinic Receptors
      • Catecholamines: Dopamine, Norepinephrine, and Epinephrine Derive from Tyrosine
      • Dopamine Couples to Gs and Gi-Coupled Receptors through D1 and D2 Receptors
      • Adrenergic Receptors Are Classified According to Their Pharmacology
      • Glutamate and Aspartate Are Excitatory Neurotransmitters
      • GABA Inhibits Neurons
      • Serotonin Exerts Multiple Effects in the PNS and CNS
      • Neuropeptides Are Synthesized in the Soma and Transported via Axonal Transport
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 4. 3. Cutaneous Sensory Systems
      • Abstract
      • Sensors Provide a Window onto Our World
      • Exteroreceptors Include the Five Classical Senses and the Cutaneous Senses
      • Interoreceptors Report on the Chemical and Physical State of the Interior of the Body
      • Sensory Systems Consist of the Sense Organ, the Sensory Receptors, and the Pathways to the CNS
      • Perception Refers to Our Awareness of a Stimulus
      • Long and Short Receptors Differ in Their Production of Action Potentials
      • Anatomical Connection Determines the Quality of a Sensory Stimulus
      • The Intensity of Sensory Stimuli Is Encoded by the Frequency of Sensory Receptor Firing and the Population of Active Receptors
      • Frequency Coding is the Basis of the Weber–Fechner Law of Psychology
      • Adaptation to a Stimulus Allows Sensory Neurons to Signal Position, Velocity, and Acceleration
      • Receptive Fields Refer to the Physical Areas at Which a Stimulus Will Excite a Receptor
      • Cutaneous Receptors Include MechanoreceptorsThermoreceptors, and Nociceptors
      • Somatosensory Information Is Transmitted to the Brain through the Dorsal Column Pathway
      • The Cutaneous Senses Map onto the Sensory Cortex
      • Pain and Temperature Information Travel in the Anterolateral Tract
      • Disorders of Sensation Can Pinpoint Damage
      • Pain Sensation Can Be Reduced by Somatosensory Input
      • The Receptive Field of Somatosensory Cortical Neurons is Often On-Center, Off-Surround
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 4. 4. Spinal Reflexes
      • Abstract
      • Reflex is a Stereotyped Muscular Response to a Specific Sensory Stimulus
      • The Withdrawal Reflex Protects Us from Painful Stimuli
      • The Crossed-Extensor Reflex Usually Occurs in Association with the Withdrawal Reflex
      • The Myotatic Reflex Involves a Muscle Length Sensor, the Muscle Spindle
      • The Muscle Spindle Is a Specialized Muscle Fiber
      • The Myotatic Reflex Is a MonoSynaptic Reflex Between Ia Afferents and the α Motor Neuron
      • The Gamma Motor System Maintains Tension on the Intrafusal Fibers During Muscle Contraction
      • The Inverse Myotatic Reflex Involves Sensors of Muscle Force in the Tendon
      • The Spinal Cord Possesses Other Reflexes and Includes Locomotor Pattern Generators
      • The Spinal Cord Contains Descending Tracts That Control Lower Motor Neurons
      • All of the Inputs to the Lower Motor Neurons Form Integrated Responses
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 4. 5. Balance and Control of Movement
      • Abstract
      • The Nervous System Uses a Population Code and Frequency Code to Control Contractile Force
      • Control of Movement Entails Control of α Motoneuron Activity
      • The Circuitry of the Spinal Cord Provides the First Layer in a Hierarchy of Muscle Control
      • The Motor Nerves Are Organized by Myotomes
      • Spinal Reflexes Form the Basis of Motor Control
      • Purposeful Movements Originate in the Cerebral Cortex
      • The Primary Motor Cortex Has a Somatotopic Organization
      • Motor Activity Originates from Sensory Areas Together with Premotor Areas
      • Motor Control Is Hierarchical and Serial
      • The Basal Ganglia and Cerebellum Play Important Roles in Movement
      • The Substantia Nigra Sets the Balance Between the Direct and Indirect Pathways
      • The Cerebellum Maintains Movement Accuracy
      • The Sense of Balance Originates in Hair Cells in the Vestibular Apparatus
      • Rotation of the Head Gives Opposite Signals from the Two Vestibular Apparatuses
      • The Utricles and Saccules Contain Hair Cells That Respond to Static Forces of Gravity
      • The Afferent Sensory Neurons from the Vestibular Apparatus Project to the Vestibular Nuclei in the Medulla
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • Problem Set 4. 1. Nerve Conduction
      • Abstract
    • 4. 6. The Chemical Senses
      • Abstract
      • The Chemical Senses Include Taste and Smell
      • Taste and Olfactory Receptors Turn Over Regularly
      • The Olfactory Epithelium Resides in the Roof of the Nasal Cavities
      • Olfactory Receptor Cells Send Axons Through the Cribriform Plate
      • Humans Recognize a Wide Variety of Odors But Are Often Untrained in Their Identification
      • The Response to Specific Odorants Is Mediated by Specific Odorant Binding Proteins
      • The Olfactory Receptor Cells Send Axons to Second-Order Neurons in the Olfactory Bulb
      • Each Glomerulus Corresponds to One Receptor That Responds to Its Molecular Receptive Range
      • Olfaction Requires Pattern Recognition Over About 350 Input Channels
      • Olfactory Output Connects Directly to the Cortex in the Temporal Lobe
      • A Second Olfactory Output Is Through the Thalamus to the Orbitofrontal Cortex
      • The Detection Limits for Odors Can Be Low
      • Adaptation to Odors Involves the Central Nervous System
      • Some “Smells” Stimulate the Trigeminal Nerve and Not the Olfactory Nerve
      • Humans Distinguish Among Five Primary Types of Taste Sensations
      • The Taste Buds Are Groups of Taste Receptors Arranged on Taste Papillae
      • TRCs Respond to Single Modalities
      • Salty Taste Has Two Mechanisms Distinguished by Their Amiloride Sensitivity
      • Sour Taste Depends on TRC Cytosolic pH
      • Sweet, Bitter, and Umami Taste Are Transduced by Three Sets of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
      • The “Hot” Taste of Jalapeno Peppers Is Sensed Through Pain Receptors
      • Taste Receptors Project to the Cortex Through the Solitary Nucleus and the Thalamus
      • Flavor Is in the Brain
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 4. 7. Hearing
      • Abstract
      • The Human Auditory System Discriminates Among Tone, Timbre, and Intensity
      • The Auditory System Can Locate Sources of Noise Using Time Delays and Intensity Differences
      • The Ear Consists of Three Parts: the Outer EarMiddle Ear, and Inner Ear: Each Has a Definite Function
      • Hair Cells of the Cochlea Respond to Deformation of Stereocilia Touching the Tectorial Membrane
      • Outer Hair Cells Move in Response to Efferent Stimulation and Thereby Tune the Inner Hair Cells
      • The Cochlea Produces a Tonotopic Mapping of Sound Frequency
      • Auditory Information Passes Through the Brain Stem to the Auditory Cortex
      • Language is Processed in Areas Near the Primary Auditory Cortex in the Left Hemisphere, but Music Is Processed in the Right Hemisphere
      • Perception of Pitch Is Accomplished by a Combination of Tuning and Phase Locking
      • The Cochlear Microphonic Shows that the Inner Hair Cells Have an AC Response That Can Keep up with Moderate Frequency Vibrations
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 4. 7. A1 The Physics of Sound
    • 4. 8. Vision
      • Abstract
      • Overview of the Visual System
      • The Structure of the Eye Enables Focusing of Light on the Retina
      • The Vitreous Body Maintains Eye Shape
      • The Eye Focuses Light on the Retina by Refraction
      • The Lens Changes Shape to Focus Near Objects
      • Near-Sightedness and Far-Sightedness Are Problems in Focusing the Image on the Retina
      • Photoreceptor Cells in the Retina Transduce Light Signals
      • The Retina Consists of Several Layers and Begins Processing of Visual Signals
      • Bipolar Cells Are Off-Center or On-Center
      • The Output of Bipolar Cells Converge Onto On-Center and Off-Center Ganglion Cells
      • Signals from the Two Eyes Cross Over During the Central Visual Pathways
      • Some Ganglion Cells Project to Other Areas of the Brain
      • Additional Processing of Visual Images Occurs in the Visual Cortex
      • The Visual Cortex Sends Output to the Temporal and Parietal Lobes
      • We Still Do Not Know How We Perceive Visual Images
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
      • Appendix 4. 8. A1 Refraction of Light and the Thin Lens Formula
    • 4. 2 Problem Set. Sensory Transduction
    • 4. 9. Autonomic Nervous System
      • Abstract
      • The Autonomic Nervous System Serves a Homeostatic Function and an Adaptive Function
      • Autonomic Reflexes Are Fast
      • The Emotional State Greatly Affects Autonomic Efferent Function
      • Autonomic Efferent Nerves Have Two Neurons
      • The Sympathetic Nervous System Originates in the Thoracolumbar Spinal Cord
      • The Parasympathetic Nervous System Originates in Cranial and Sacral Nerves
      • Autonomic Reflexes Link Sensory Input to Motor Efferents
      • The Major Autonomic Neurotransmitters Are Acetylcholine and Norepinephrine
      • Parasympathetic Release of Acetylcholine Works on MuscarinicReceptors
      • Norepinephrine Released by Postganglionic Sympathetic Neurons Acts Through α- and β-Receptors
      • Autonomic Nerve Terminals Also Release Other Neurotransmitters
      • Effects of Autonomic Stimulation Depend on the Receptor on the Target Cell
      • The Pupillary Light Reflex Regulates Light Intensity Falling on the Retina: A Parasympathetic Reflex
      • Micturition Involves Autonomic Reflexes and Volitional Nervous Activity
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
  • Unit 5: The Cardiovascular System
    • 5. 1. Overview of the Cardiovascular System and the Blood
      • Abstract
      • The Circulatory System Is a Transport System
      • The Circulatory System Consists of the HeartBlood Vessels, and Blood
      • The Circulatory System Carries Nutrients, Wastes, Chemical Signals, and Heat
      • The Circulation Is Necessary Because Diffusion from and to the Environment Is Too Slow
      • The Circulatory System Consists of the Pulmonary Circulation and Systemic Circulation
      • Most Circulatory Beds Are Arranged in Parallel
      • Pressure Drives Blood Flow Through the Vascular System
      • Vessels Are Characterized by a Compliance
      • Blood Consists of Cells Suspended in Plasma
      • Hemostasis Defends the Integrity of the Vascular Volume
      • Blood Coagulation Sits on a Knife Edge of Activation and Inhibition
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 5. 2. Plasma and Red Blood Cells
      • Abstract
      • Plasma Consists Mainly of Water, Electrolytes, and Proteins
      • Plasma Proteins and Ions Buffer Changes in Plasma pH
      • The Oncotic Pressure of Plasma Proteins Retains Circulatory Volume
      • The Erythrocyte Is the Most Abundant Cell in the Blood
      • Erythrocytes Contain a Lot of Hemoglobin
      • Hemoglobin Consists of Four Polypeptide Chains, Each with a Heme Group
      • Erythropoietin Controls Formation of Erythrocytes from Pluripotent Stem Cells in Bone Marrow
      • Phagocytes in the Reticuloendothelial System Destroy Worn Erythrocytes
      • Iron Recycles into New Heme
      • Human Blood Can Be Classified into a Small Number of Blood Types
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 5. 3. White Blood Cells and Inflammation
      • Abstract
      • The White Blood Cells Include Neutrophils, Eosinophils, Basophils, Monocytes, Lymphocytes, and Platelets
      • White Blood Cells Originate from Pluripotent Stem Cells
      • Neutrophils Are Phagocytes
      • Monocytes Leave the Circulatory System to Become Tissue Macrophages
      • Basophils Resemble Mast Cells
      • Eosinophils Are Involved in Defense of Parasitic Infections and Allergies
      • Lymphocytes Form a Specific Defense System
      • Tissue Macrophages, Monocytes, and Specialized Endothelial Cells Form the Reticuloendothelial System
      • Inflammation Is the Net Response of the Body to Tissue Injury
      • Inflammation Begins with the Release of Signaling Molecules from the Damaged Tissue
      • The Innate Immune Response Requires No Prior Exposure–Specificity of the Response Is Inherited in the Genome
      • Neutrophils and Monocytes Leave the Circulatory System by Diapedesis in Response to Chemotaxic Compounds
      • The Complement System Destroys Microbes that Have Attached Antibodies
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 5. 4. The Heart as a Pump
      • Abstract
      • The Heart Is Located in the Center of the Thoracic Cavity
      • The Heart Is a Muscle
      • Contraction of Cardiac Muscle Produces a Pressure within the Chamber
      • Blood is Pumped through Four Chambers
      • The Four Valves Are Nearly CoPlanar
      • Closure of the Valves Produces the Heart Sounds
      • Additional Turbulence Causes Heart Murmurs
      • Summary of the Contractile Events in the Cardiac Cycle
      • An Automatic Electrical System Controls the Contraction of the Heart
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • Problem Set 5. 1. Blood
    • 5. 5. The Cardiac Action Potential
      • Abstract
      • Different Cardiac Cells Differ in Their Resting Membrane Potential and Action Potential
      • SA Nodal Cells Spontaneously Generate Action Potentials Whereas Contractile Cells Have Stable Resting Membrane Potentials
      • Autonomic Nerves Alter the Heart Rate by Affecting the Pacemaker Potential
      • The Ionic Basis of the Ventricular Cardiomyocyte Action Potential
      • Epinephrine Enhances the L-Type Ca2+ Channels, Which Elevates the Action Potential Plateau
      • The Action Potential Is Conducted to Neighboring Cells through Gap Junctions in the Intercalated Disks
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 5. 6. The Electrocardiogram
      • Abstract
      • The ECG is the Projection of Cardiac Electrical Activity onto the Body Surface
      • The Heart Muscle Fibers Act as Electric Dipoles
      • Einthoven Idealized the Thorax as a Triangle
      • The Heart’s Electric Dipole Moment Varies with Time—and so Does its Recording on Leads I, II, and III
      • The Values of Leads I and III Can Be Used to Calculate the Electric Dipole Moment of the Heart
      • Atrial Depolarization Causes the P wave
      • Sequential Depolarization of the Ventricles Produces the QRS Complex
      • The Subepicardium Repolarizes before the Subendocardium, Causing an Upright T wave
      • The Cardiac Dipole Traces a Closed Curve during Each Heart Beat
      • The Largest Depolarization Defines the Mean Electrical Axis
      • Unipolar Leads Record the Difference between an Electrode and a Zero Electrode
      • Augmented Unipolar Limb Leads Use Combination of Only Two Electrodes for the Indifferent Electrode
      • The Einthoven Triangle is Only Approximately Valid
      • The Cardiac Cycle, Revisited
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 5. 7. The Cellular Basis of Cardiac Contractility
      • Abstract
      • Cardiac Muscle Shares Many Structural Features with Skeletal Muscle
      • Intercalated Disks Electrically Couple Cardiomyocytes
      • The Strength of Cardiac Muscle Contraction Is not Regulated by Recruitment or by Summation
      • Cardiac Myofibrils Have Thick and Thin Filaments and Form the Cross-Striations
      • Actin-Activated Myosin ATPase Activity Produces Force and Shortening
      • Cytoplasmic [Ca2+] Controls Actomyosin Cross-Bridge Cycling
      • Calcium-Induced Calcium Release Couples Excitation to Contraction in Cardiac Muscle
      • Reuptake of Ca2+ by the SR and SL Extrusion of Ca2+ Cause Relaxation
      • Mitochondria Can Take Up Ca2+
      • Calsequestrin Augments SR Ca2+ Uptake and Release
      • What Regulates Cardiac Contractility?
      • The Force Generally Increases with the Frequency of the Heart Beat: The Force–Frequency Relation
      • Sympathetic Stimulation Increases Force by Increasing the Ca2+ Transient
      • Parasympathetic Stimulation Opposes Sympathetic Effects (see Figure 5. 7. 7)
      • Cardiac Glycosides Increase Cardiac Contractility by Increasing the Ca2+ Transient
      • Cardiac Contractile Force Is Powerfully Modulated by Stretch
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 5. 8. The Cardiac Function Curve
      • Abstract
      • Cardiac Output Is the Flow Produced by the Heart
      • Stroke Volume Is Determined by Preload, Afterload, and Contractility
      • The Integral of the Pressure–Volume Loop Is the PV Work
      • Total Work of the Heart Includes Pressure, Kinetic, and Gravitational Terms
      • Stretch of the Heart Determines the Stroke Volume: The Frank–Starling Law of the Heart
      • The Ventricular Function Curve Plots Cardiac Function against Right Atrial Pressure
      • Increasing Preload Increases the Stroke Volume, Increasing Afterload Decreases It
      • Positive Inotropic Agents Shift the Cardiac Function Curve Up and to the Left
      • Fick’s Principle Estimates Cardiac Output from O2 Consumption
      • Cardiac Output can be Determined by the Indicator Dilution Method
      • The Thermal Dilution Method
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • Problem Set 5. 2. Cardiac Work
      • Publisher Summary
    • 5. 9. Vascular Function: Hemodynamics
      • Abstract
      • The Vascular System Distributes Cardiac Output to the Tissues
      • The Circulatory System Uses Four Major Physical Principles
      • Flow is Driven by a Pressure Difference
      • Compliance Describes the Relation between Pressure and Volume in the Vessels
      • The Heart’s Ejection of Blood into the Arterial Tree Causes the Arterial Pressure Pulse
      • The Pulse Pressure Depends on the Stroke Volume and Compliance of the Arteries
      • Diastolic Pressure Plus One-Third Pulse Pressure Estimates the Mean Arterial Pressure
      • Pressure and Flow Waves Propagate Down the Arterial Tree
      • Clinicians Use a Sphygmomanometer to Measure Blood Pressure
      • Blood Vessels Branch Extensively, Reducing Their Diameter but Increasing the Overall Area
      • The Major Pressure Drop in the Arterial Circulation Occurs in the Arterioles
      • Poiseuille’s Law Only Approximately Describes Flow in the Vasculature
      • The Ratio of ΔP to Qv Defines the Vascular Resistance
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 5. 10. The Microcirculation and Solute Exchange
      • Abstract
      • The Exchange Vessels Include Capillaries, Terminal Arterioles, and Venules
      • Ultrastructural Studies Reveal Three Distinct Types of Capillaries
      • Capillary Exchange Uses Passive Mechanisms
      • Passive Diffusion Obeys Fick’s Law of Diffusion Across Multiple Barriers
      • Either Flow or Diffusion Can Limit Delivery of Materials to Cells
      • The Interstitial Fluid Concentration Is Set by the Balance Between Consumption and Delivery
      • Regulation of Perfusion Regulates Solute Transfer
      • Some Macromolecules Cross the Capillary Wall by Transcytosis
      • Starling First Described the Forces That Drive Bulk Fluid Movement Across Capillaries
      • In Most Organs, Net Filtration Pressure Drives Fluid Out of the Capillaries at the Arteriolar End
      • The Lymphatics Drain the Fluid Filtered Through the Capillaries Back into the Blood
      • Muscle Activity Helps Pump Lymph Through the Lymphatics
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 5. 11. Regulation of Perfusion
      • Abstract
      • For Any Given Input Pressure, the Caliber of the Arterioles Controls Perfusion of a Tissue
      • Vasoconstriction Decreases Capillary Pressure
      • Vascular Smooth Muscle Contracts by Activation of Myosin Light Chain Kinase
      • Multiple Signals Regulate the Activity of MLCK and MLCP
      • Multiple Mechanisms Cause Vasodilation
      • Control of Blood Vessel Caliber Is Local (Intrinsic) and Systemic (Extrinsic)
      • The Myogenic Response Arises from the Contractile Response to Stretch
      • Endothelial Secretions Dilate Arterioles
      • Metabolic Products Generally Vasodilate
      • Paracrine Secretions Affect Vascular Caliber
      • The Sympathetic Nervous System Predominantly Controls the Vascular System
      • Circulating Hormones That Affect Vessel Caliber Include Epinephrine, Angiotensin, ANP, and Vasopressin
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 5. 12. Integration of Cardiac Output and Venous Return
      • Abstract
      • The Cardiovascular System Is Closed
      • The Cardiovascular System Can Be Simplified for Analysis
      • The Operating Point of the Cardiovascular System Matches Cardiac Function to Vascular Function
      • The Mean Systemic Pressure Normally Equals the Mean Circulatory Pressure
      • Filling the Empty Circulatory System Reveals Stressed and Unstressed Volumes
      • The Vascular Function Curve Can Be Derived from Arterial and Venous Compliances and TPR
      • The Experimentally Determined Vascular Function Curve Follows the Theoretical Result Only for Positive Right Atrial Pressures
      • Simultaneous Solution of the Cardiac Function Curve and Vascular Function Curve Defines the Steady-State Operating Point of the Cardiovascular System
      • Changing Arteriolar Resistance Rotates the Vascular Function Around PMS
      • Changes in Blood Volume Shift the Vascular Function Curve Vertically
      • Changes in the Cardiac Function Curve Change the Steady-State Operating Point
      • Strenuous Exercise Alters Multiple Parts of the Cardiovascular System
      • Summary
      • Review Questions
    • 5. 13. Regulation of Arterial Pressure
      • Abstract
      • Arterial Pressure Drives Flow but Arterial Pressure also Arisesfrom Flow
      • Regulation of Arterial Pressure Occurs on Three Separate Timescales Involving Three Distinct Types of Mechanisms
      • Baroreceptors in the Carotid Sinus and Aortic Arch Sense Blood Pressure
      • The Baroreflex Regulates Heart and Vasculature to Stabilize Blood Pressure
      • The Baroreflex Mediates Parasympathetic and Sympathetic Output from Centers Located in the Medulla
      • Inspiration Infl

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